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« L’auberge espagnole »

Pourquoi maintenant ? Pourquoi, dans un contexte international tendu, l’Espagne change subitement sa position sur le dossier du Sahara occidentale ? D’aucuns estiment que les autorités de Madrid ont tout simplement cédé aux pressions marocaines qui n’hésitent pas à recourir à des méthodes loin d’être saines, en premier lieu l’utilisation de la question humanitaire et laissant faire des prétendues tensions sur les villes de Sebta et Melilla.

Si ce facteur peut tenir la route, il y a d’autres éléments susceptibles d’avoir pesé sur la balance. Le conflit russo-ukrainien a chamboulé de fond en comble l’approvisionnement de l’Europe en gaz et du coup le vieux contenant se retrouve contraint de chercher d’autres alternatives au gaz russe. Et il y a fort à parier que Madrid tente de se faire une place sur le prochain échiquier énergétique continental, du moins c’est ce qui ressort des prétentions de son gouvernement et affichées clairement aux responsables de l’Union européenne.

La presse européenne a fait l’écho récemment d’une sorte de tractation censée transformer l’Espagne en « hub » pour l’entrée, le stockage et la distribution de gaz en Europe, grâce à son gazoduc relié à l’Algérie et 30 % des capacités de regazéification d’Europe, et Madrid en rêve.

En effet, Alors que l’Europe cherche à réduire sa dépendance au gaz russe, l’Espagne entend se positionner en passage stratégique permettant de diversifier les sources d’approvisionnement du continent. « Nous pouvons être une alternative au gaz russe »insistait-on au ministère des affaires étrangères, dès le début du mois de février, avant même l’invasion en Ukraine. L’idée, depuis, a fait son chemin, estiment certains observateurs. « Avec sa grande capacité énergétique et sa grande expérience dans les énergies renouvelables, l’Espagne peut et va jouer un rôle important pour approvisionner l’Europe, a finalement confirmé la présidente de la Commission européenne, Ursula von der Leyen, en visite à Madrid, le 5 mars. Et, pour cela, nous devons travailler dans les interconnexions entre la péninsule Ibérique et le reste de l’Union européenne. », avait-elle dit.

Au programme, un dossier que certains croyaient définitivement enterré a été ressuscité : le « MidCat ». Lancé par l’Espagne, le Portugal et la France en 2003, ce projet de gazoduc traversant les Pyrénées entre la Catalogne et le sud-ouest de la France devait permettre de relier les réseaux espagnols et portugais au réseau européen et aider à désenclaver la péninsule Ibérique, véritable « île énergétique », qui compte moins de 5 % d’interconnexions – loin des 15 % demandés par l’Europe. Avec un coût estimé à 400 millions d’euros dans sa première phase de développement, l’infrastructure avait même figuré, un temps, parmi les infrastructures prioritaires de l’UE, avant d’être abandonnée en 2019, sur fond de manifestations d’opposants écologistes.

Dès lors, ne serait-il pas légitime de s’interroger si Madrid n’est pas en train de jouer au « chantage » pour forcer la main à l’Algérie afin de rouvrir son gazoduc avec le voisin marocain ou plus simplement à doper ses exportations envers la péninsule ibérique, «  future centre de stockage européen », selon le « rêve » espagnol !

Toutefois, l’Algérie a-t-elle les moyens techniques et financiers pour répondre à cette demande sous-jacente à cette manœuvre politique ? Primo, l’Algérie ne répondra jamais positivement à la demande espagnole, même si elle avait les moyens de faire. C’est une question de principes, personne ne lui dicte sa politique énergétique.  Secundo, justement l’Algérie n’a pas les moyens de le faire puisque ses installations fonctionnent actuellement à plein régime. Reste une seule parade, celle qui consiste à pousser les algériens à réduire au maximum la consommation interne qui «  bouffe », rappelons-le, pratiquement la moitié du gaz produit et gagner, de ce fait, du surplus « exportable ». Et pour se faire, il n’y a pas trente six chemins, une transformation «  révolutionnaire » en termes de développement des énergies renouvelables. Sauf qu’un grand programme national pour les énergies renouvelables exige des fonds, et c’est là que les espagnoles (ainsi que les européens) doivent mettre la main dans la poche pour financer un tel programme en Algérie. On ne prend que lorsqu’on donne, c’est l’esprit même de la fameuse expression « auberge espagnole », âgée d’ailleurs de trois siècles, et qui désigne un lieu où on ne trouve que ce qu’on y a apporte.. C’est simple, non ?

M.H    

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